Continuous clarification and emergent requirements flows in software ecosystems

I am very happy that Springer’s Requirements Engineering Journal has accepted our paper on continuous clarification and emergent requirements flows in open-commercial software ecosystems (open access to paper). This paper was joint work with Aminah Yussuf, Kelly Blincoe, Daniela Damian, and Alessia Knauss.

For me, the highlight of this paper is the visualization of emergent requirements flows throughout the ecosystem (see Fig. 1) as well as an analysis of the impact these emergent flows have with respect to our previous works on continuous clarification and RE in software ecosystems.


Fig. 1: Emergent communication across product teams and ecosystem actors. Size of nodes depicts number of emergent contributions by this stakeholder, color of links depicts comment type (yellow = requirements negotiation, green = coordination, brown = information).

Title: Continuous clarification and emergent requirements flows in open-commercial software ecosystems (open access to paper)

Abstract: Software engineering practice has shifted from the development of products in closed environments toward more open and collaborative efforts. Software development has become significantly interdependent with other systems (e.g. services, apps) and typically takes place within large ecosystems of networked communities of stakeholder organizations. Such software ecosystems promise increased innovation power and support for consumer-oriented software services at scale and are characterized by a certain openness of their information flows. While such openness supports project and reputation management, it also brings requirements engineering-related challenges within the ecosystem, such as managing dynamic, emergent contributions from the ecosystem stakeholders, as well as collecting their input while protecting their IP. In this paper, we report from a study of requirements communication and management practices within IBM®’s Collaborative Lifecycle Management® product development ecosystem. Our research used multiple methods for data collection, including interviews within several ecosystem actors, on-site participatory observation, and analysis of online project repositories. We chart and describe the flow of product requirements information through the ecosystem, how the open communication paradigm in software ecosystems provides opportunities for “just-in-time” RE—and which relies on emergent contributions from the ecosystem stakeholders—, as well as some of the challenges faced when traditional requirements engineering approaches are applied within such an ecosystem. More importantly, we discuss two tradeoffs brought about by the openness in software ecosystems: (1) allowing open, transparent communication while keeping intellectual property confidential within the ecosystem and (2) having the ability to act globally on a long-term strategy while empowering product teams to act locally to answer end users’ context-specific needs in a timely manner. A sufficient level of openness facilitates contributions of emergent stakeholders. The ability to include important emergent contributors early in requirements elicitation appears to be a crucial asset in software ecosystems.

Keywords: Requirements engineering; Software ecosystem; Mixed method

Reference: Knauss, E., Yussuf, A., Blincoe, K., Damian, D. and Knauss, A.: Continuous clarification and emergent requirements flows in open-commercial software ecosystems. In: Requirements Eng (2016). doi:10.1007/s00766-016-0259-1

Scaling up the Planning Game

Our paper on Scaling up the Planning Game: Collaboration Challenges in Large-Scale Agile Product Development has been accepted at XP conference 2016 in Edinburgh. In this joint work of Felix Evbota, Eric Knauss, Anna Sandberg we discuss how a large-scale agile organization can align views of developers and customers in order to incorporate agile values in their planning. For me, this is a particularly interesting topic because it helps (=is a first step) to understand how customer needs and requirements can and should be communicated in agile organizations.

Title: Scaling up the Planning Game: Collaboration Challenges in Large-Scale Agile Product Development

Abstract: One of the benefits of agile is close collaboration of customer and developer. This ensures good commitment and excellent knowledge flows of information about priorities and efforts. However, it is unclear if this benefit can be leveraged at scale. Clearly, it is infeasible to use practices such as planning game with several agile teams in the room. In this paper, we investigate how a large-scale agile organization manages, what challenges exist, and which opportunities can be leveraged. We found challenges in three areas: (i) the ability to estimate, prioritize, and plan; (ii) the context of planning with respect to working environment, team build-up, and team spirit; and (iii) the ceremonial agreement which promises to allow leveraging abilities in a given context.

Keywords: large-scale agile, planning, collaboration, communication

Pre-Print: EKS2016

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Call for Part.: REFSQ’16 Conference

Early Bird Deadline approaching: Feb-26!

Call for Participation

REFSQ’16 will take place from March 14 -17, 2016 in Gothenburg, Sweden!
The REFSQ’16 special theme is:

Understanding an ever changing world through the right requirements.

Keynote Speakers

  • Magne Jørgenssen, Simula Norway
  • Roel Wieringa, University of Twente, the Netherlands

Scientific Program

21 papers will be intensively discussed in the REFSQ typical discussion sessions.

3 workshops featuring the topics of:

Doctoral Symposium

Posters & Demos Session

Industry Track

Keynote: Sarah Gregory, Intel, USA

7 Industrial Talks and a Discussion Panel

Research Methodology Track

This track features lively discussions giving you the opportunity to learn about research methods used in RE research.

Social Event

Join us for join us for an unforgettable social Event on March 16, including a guided tour in Universeum, Gothenburg’s famous science park, and a delicious conference dinner in its aquarium.

The detailed program is available at:

The online registration service is available at:


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How does the AUTOSAR Ecosystem Impact Requirement Engineering?

AUTOSAR aims at facilitating reuse of standardized software components in automotive software development. For this, it defines three layers: the application components (with standardized interfaces between components), the (standardized) runtime environment, and the basic software (which abstracts the hardware and contains the driver modules). Despite this standardization, the combination of application components, runtime and basic software should still offer differentiating functionality for cars. In an exploratory study, we found this situation challenging for Requirements Engineering practice, where standard requirements implied by the AUTOSAR standard should be treated differently from OEM specific requirements targeted towards differentiation or innovation features.

We will discuss our preliminary findings at the 23rd IEEE International Requirements Conference 2015 in Ottawa, Canada during the poster and tool demo session as well as our method in the 5th IEEE International Workshop on Empirical Requirements Engineering.

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Supporting Requirements Feedback Flows in Iterative System Development

Complex, inter-connected systems make it hard to do upfront requirements analysis, as many requirements only surface when the system is used in its intended context. Does this mean that engineers cannot rely on systematic requirements approaches? Based on a case study at Volvo Cars we say “no”.

Agility does not have to contradict systematic RE!

Iterative development and field tests with early versions of the system are a great chance for requirements engineering! We will discuss our findings at REFSQ conference in Essen:

Knauss, E.; Andersson, A.; Rybacki, M. & Israelsson, E. Research Preview: Supporting Requirements Feedback Flows in Iterative System Development. Proceedings of 21st International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality (REFSQ’ 15), 2015 Continue reading